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    Fire alarm system plays an important part of the fire and life safety of building and its occupants. Fire alarm system main function is to detect a fire at a sufficiently early stage so that the people who are at risk can made safely either by escaping as fast as possible or extinguishing the fire that can also reduce or prevent the property damage. Therefore, a reliability and functionality of fire alarm system as a whole is very important. 

    The following are the different types of the Fire Alarm System:

    1. Conventional fire alarm system

    a. Conventional fire alarm system uses physical cabling to connect several detectors and call points. Conventional fire alarm system has no way to identify immediately the exact location of the fire, but can be arranged in “Zones” to easily identify the location of the cause of the alarm. Its devices are cheaper but will consume more cable wires compare to addressable, since each device will be connected to the control panel by its own cable wire. This system are mainly used specially in smaller property.
    conventional fire alarm system Wiring diagram 

    2. Addressable fire alarm system

    a. Addressable fire alarm system has the same detection principle, except that each detector can be given a set address that can help to identify the exact location of the detector that initiated the alarm, that can be seen in the fire alarm control panel. Addressable fire alarm system saves a lot of wire compare to conventional system, since the devices can share one cable wires up to the last device. Both ends of the wire is loop connected to the fire alarm control panel. This system are very suitable for large and high buildings, since they are able to pinpoint exactly which devices are triggering the alarm.
    addressable fire alarm system Wiring diagram

    3. Wireless fire alarm system

    a. Wireless fire alarm system, is hassle-free to install compare to conventional and addressable since it does not use any conduit and cable wires. However, even though you saved a lot of money in material and labor cost, the hardware and programming are higher than the wired systems. The devices are battery powered and can be placed anywhere and can be easily relocate if needed.
    wireless fire alarm system

    Fire Alarm System Components 

    The main component of fire alarm system are the following:
    1. Fire Alarm Control Panel
    Fire Alarm Control Panel is the brain or central hub of a fire alarm system. It displays the location and status of the alarm devices, and it gives precise location of the device that cause the alarm.
    fire alarm control panel
    2. Fire Alarm Initiating Devices
    Fire Alarm Initiating Devices are the devices that detects signs of fire and triggers the alarm. They are connected to the fire alarm system control panel. Initiating devices includes smoke detectors, heat detectors, flame detectors, manual pull station and fire sprinkler water flow switch.
    Fire Alarm Initiating Devices
    3. Fire Notification Devices
    Fire Notification Devices are the audible and visual devices in fire alarm system, it includes fire alarm horn, speaker and bell. Its main function is to alert people at risk in the event of a fire, that is why it is considered as the most important components of fire alarm system.
    Fire Notification Devices
    4. Primary Power Supply
    Primary power supply is typically supplied by the local utility, and also from generators that are located in remote areas wherein the electrical grid is not available. 
    5. Backup Power Supply
    Backup power supply commonly supplied by batteries and stored internally or adjacent to main fire alarm control panel or can be also from generator. It must also provide a 24 hours of power supply to control panel in case of power shortage.

    How Fire Alarm System Works? 

    In an event of a fire emergency, the fire alarm system main role is to detect fire and to alert people at risk inside the building and emergency response team to control the situation as fast as possible. Fire alarm system key functions is to detect (by the use of smoke detectors, heat detectors, flame detectors, etc.) , alert (by the use alarm horn, speaker, and bell), and monitor (control panel). 

    Fire Alarm System Maintenance 

    A functioning and well-maintained fire alarm devices can help reduce injuries, save lives and properties. The fire safety systems inspection, routine maintenance, and testing will help one in keeping in compliance with the local/state fire inspectors and also their insurance carrier. To keep the best condition of the fire alarm devices, it is advisable to keep a scheduled maintenance and check the following: 
    1. Checking of physical appearance of the fire alarm devices
    2. Smoke Detectors should be cleaned & tested for sensitivity levels (addressable type)
    3. Fire alarm control panel should be tested for all alarm, trouble, supervisory, reset & silence function
    4. Checking of the devices power supply
    5. Checking/ replacement of batteries
    6. Checking/ removal of any obstruction on the devices that may cause false alarm or malfunctioning
    7. Checking if the alarm is audible
    8. Devices must be replaced when exceeded 10 years from the manufactured date


    ASENWARE Centralized Monitoring Emergency Luminaire System is designed for managing, monitoring and controlling emergency lights automatically. 
    ASENWARE Fire Pump Series provide fire departments or private users with the ability to pump from any water source.

    At ASENWARE, you can choose the best quality of fire fighting equipment like  extinguisher, hose reels, fire monitors, nozzles and hose pipes.
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Aspirating Smoke Detection System Applications Guide For Electrical Room
The aspirating smoke detection (ASD) system can give early alarms when detecting the early smoke in the Electrical room. The early smoke can’t be seen yet by human eyes, for it is generated from solids sublimated by heating when an electrical fire occurs. By detecting the electrical fire early and putting it out on time, people can protect their property and personal safety, and reduce the harm from fire.

1.Introduction to Electrical Fire

The main reason for the occurrence of electrical fire is that the faulty parts of the electrical devices are heated for a long time. It causes a further degradation in insulation, which eventually leads to short circuits in the loops, resulting in fires. Or the arc or spark generated at the faulty parts releases heat instantly, causing short circuits in the loop and leading to a fire.
The electrical devices always heat up during operation for the following reasons:
  • The current generates heat on the resistance of the conductor;
  • The iron core is worn out and generates heat;
  • The insulating medium is worn out and generates heat;
Usually, the heat generation and heat dissipation of electrical equipment can balance at a rather low temperature. If the temperature doesn’t exceed the continuous service temperature of the electrical equipment, there will be no dangerous situation occurs. However, when the operation of the electrical equipment is abnormal, it will keep heating up and can’t dissipate heat in time, making the temperature increase sharply and causing a fire.
Gas or liquid insulating materials can have sparks and arcs when heating. After the insulation is damaged, an arc might occur between the cracks, and the voltage of it is 30kV/cm, which will lead to a damage between the two conductors. The arc will generate high temperature, for example, the arc current of 2~20A can generate a high temperature of 2000℃~4000℃. Therefore, an arc that has a current of 0.5A is enough to cause a fire. As for the spark, it can be seen as an unstable, short-duration arc, whose temperature is also high. The second ignition sources generated by sparks and arcs are more dangerous.

Analysis of Electrical Fire

Under Heating
Heat the PVC insulated cable at a heating rate of 20ºC per minute. When at 85ºC, its insulation begins to soften. At 159ºC, its insulation starts to discolor, and a little gas appears. At 240ºC, a small amount of organic gas appears and the insulation begins to crack. At about 288ºC, a large amount of organic gas appears. At 328ºC, the weight of the PVC insulated cable drops quickly, and the released gas contained HCI. At 385ºC, there are HCl, plasticizers, and carbon-containing oxides in the gas. At around 477ºC, the insulation is completely carbonized, causing a fire.
Under Overload Operation
When the temperature is 23°C, run a new 1.0mm² BV wire (rated load 15A, limit load 20A) under a load current of 28.5Ato test its temperature. When the operation is 90% overloaded, after a period of time, the temperature of the wire is stable at 96.1 ℃ and it begins to soften. There is a slightly pungent odor, indicating the occurrence of gas.
Under Short Circuit
At normal temperature, use a large current generator and increase the current of the 1.0mm² BV wire to 5-time the rated current (75A), making a short-circuit simulation experiment. The wire’s temperature rises sharply and much white smoke appears instantly. After a few minutes, the insulating layer is carbonized and peeled off along the entire line, with high-temperature molten droplets dripping down. If change into the 2.5mm² BLV wire and do a short-circuit experiment with a 5-time rated current (140A), you will find that the wire core breaks at the thin point, producing molten droplets close to 300ºC and igniting combustibles. In the actual operation, the short-circuit current is hundreds or thousands of times larger than the rated current, which is more dangerous.

Development of Electrical Fire

The Electrical Fire development of fire  four stages
The development of fire has four stages: smoldering period, visible smoke, smoke flame and open flame.
Most electrical fires are caused by overheating equipment, shorted circuits or electrical discharges. Once a fire reaches the open flame stage, the fire will spread faster and cause serious damage. If smoke is detected early in a fire, there will be more time to control the dangerous situation.

2.Application of Smoke Detection System in Electrical Room

Application of Point-type Smoke Detector in Electrical Room

The point-type smoke detector is the most common detector used in Electrical rooms. They are usually installed on the ceiling. There are three factors that affect the detection speed of a point-type smoke detector: the path of the smoke from the fire source to the detector, the dilution of the smoke in the process of transmission, and the sensitivity of the detector. Due to the high voltages, the power distribution systems are usually enclosed in cabinets. There is a cooling fan or air conditioning system installed in the cabinet, and it can keep the temperature of the equipment within a safe range. These cabinets can affect the smoke detectors installed in the Electrical rooms in two negative ways:
  • The cabinet will affect the flow of smoke, prolonging the time it reaches to the detectors mounted on the ceiling.
  • The cooling fan or air conditioning system will dilute the smoke, making it hard to rise to the ceiling, and it will prolong the detecting time of the point-type smoke detectors.
Smoke Detection System in Electrical Room
If there is smoke inside the cabinet, it will be hard to get out. Even if there is a little smoke leaking into the room, it will spread, and the point-type smoke detectors installed on the ceiling are usually hard to detect.

Application of Aspirating Smoke Detection System in Electrical Room

The working method of the aspirating smoke detection system is to use the air pump inside the detection panel, connect the sampling pipe, extract the air sample inside the cabinet and send it back to the panel for detection. When the panel detects smoke, it will give a fire alarm to warn people.
Installing the aspirating smoke detection system in cabinets is the most effective way to protect the electrical equipment. It reduces the influence of air pressure and air contamination on the detection system.
Aspirating smoke detection system Installation from the top of the cabinet
Aspirating smoke detection system Installation from the top of the cabinet
The sampling pipes’ installation of the aspirating smoke detection system is quite flexible. They can be installed on the top of the cabinet, and the air inside the cabinet can be extracted by using the pipes and the opening holes above the cabinet. The sampling pipes can also be installed under the cabinet to draw the air samples.
Aspirating smoke detection system Installation from the bottom of the cabinet
Aspirating smoke detection system Installation from the bottom of the cabinet

Aspirating smoke detection system Installation example
Aspirating smoke detection system Installation example


3.AW-AS100 Aspirating Smoke Detection System

The AW-AS100 aspirating smoke detection system is an extremely early smoke detection device that collects air samples through air sampling pipes and analyzes the concentration of smoke particles in air samples to give alarms.

Its main features are as fellow:

  • Sensitivity: The AW-AS100 aspirating smoke detection system is extremely sensitive, it can detect small smoke particles in the early stage of combustion.
  • Accurate alarm: The AW-AS100 adopts the principle of laser cavity detection and is extremely accurate in monitoring smoke particles.
  • Large detection area: The detection area of each double-pipe detector can reach 1000 square meters.
  • Smoke content visualization: After the intelligent terminal connects to the device, it can view the smoke content waveform of the device, so that people can take immediate action to the dangerous situation.
  • Multi-level alarm function: The alarm is divided into five stages: alarm, early warning, patrol, fire alarm 1, and fire alarm 2. The parameter values at each stage can be set according to customer needs. 
  • Alarm query function: It can save 30,000 previous alarms.