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What is a Fire Alarm System? 


    Fire alarm system(FAS system for short) is an automatic fire protection facility installed in buildings or other places in order to detect and report fires early and take effective measures to control and extinguish fires in time. A powerful tool to fight fires. Automatic fire alarm systems usually consist of fire detectors, area alarm controllers and centralized alarm controllers, and linkage modules. The detector detects the fire effectively, the controller performs fire information processing and alarm control, and the linkage module cooperates with the fire protection device.
 

system introduction

    Fire alarm system is generally composed of fire detector, area alarm and centralized alarm; it can also be linked with various fire extinguishing facilities and communication devices according to the requirements of the project to form a central control system. That is, a complete fire control system is composed of automatic alarm, automatic fire extinguishing, safe evacuation induction, system process display, and fire file management. Fire detectors are instruments that detect fires, as smoke, high temperature and fire will be accompanied during the fire stage. These smoke, heat, and light can be converted into electrical signals by the detector or the automatic fire extinguishing system can be started to extinguish the fire in time. The area alarm can convert the signal from the detector on the floor to an audible and visual alarm, and display the room number of the fire on the screen; at the same time, it can also monitor several floors of centralized alarms (if the entire building is monitored for fire protection) Control center) output signal or control automatic fire extinguishing system. The centralized alarm is to display the received signal in an acousto-optic manner. The screen also shows the floor and room number on fire. The clock stopped on the aircraft records the time of the first alarm. Using the local dedicated telephone, it can also quickly Give instructions and alert the fire brigade. In addition, the relevant fire extinguishing system can be controlled or the fire signal can be transmitted to the fire control room.

system composition

     Fire alarm system by a trigger device , fire alarm , a fire alarm device and a device composed of other auxiliary functions fire alarm system. It can convert the physical quantities such as smoke, heat and light radiation generated by the combustion into electrical signals through fire detectors such as temperature, smoke and light sensing, and transmit them to the fire alarm controller, and simultaneously display the location of the fire , Record the time of the fire. General fire automatic alarm system and sprinkler system, indoor and outdoor fire hydrant system, smoke prevention and exhaust system, ventilation system, air conditioning system, fire door , fire shutter , smoke wall, etc. Activate the corresponding device.

(1) trigger device

    In the automatic fire alarm system, devices that automatically or manually generate a fire alarm signal are called triggers, which mainly include fire detectors and manual fire alarm buttons. A fire detector is a device that can respond to fire parameters (such as smoke, temperature, flame radiation, gas concentration, etc.) and automatically generate a fire alarm signal. According to the different fire response parameters, fire detectors are divided into five basic types: thermal fire detectors, smoke fire detectors, photosensitive fire detectors, combustible gas detectors, and composite fire detectors. Different types of fire detectors are suitable for different types of fires and different places. The manual fire alarm button is a device that manually generates a fire alarm signal and starts an automatic fire alarm system, and is also an indispensable part of the automatic fire alarm system.

(2) Fire alarm device

   In an automatic fire alarm system, a control instruction device used to receive, display, and transmit fire alarm signals, and can issue control signals and other auxiliary functions is called a fire alarm device. The fire alarm controller is the most basic one. The fire alarm controller is responsible for providing a stable working power supply for the fire detector; monitoring the working state of the detector and the system itself; receiving, converting, and processing the alarm signals output by the fire detector; performing audible and visual alarms; Time; simultaneously perform many tasks such as corresponding auxiliary control. It is a core component of a fire alarm system.

   In the fire alarm device, there are some alarm devices with incomplete functions such as interrupters, area displays, and fire display panels, which can be regarded as the evolution or supplement of the fire alarm controller. Under specific conditions, it belongs to the same fire alarm device as the fire alarm controller.

   The basic functions of the fire alarm controller are: automatic conversion of main power and backup power, backup power supply charging function, power failure monitoring function, power supply status indicator function, power supply for the detector circuit, sound and light alarm of the controller or system failure , Fire sound, light alarm, fire alarm memory function, clock unit function, fire alarm priority reporting function, sound alarm sound mute and re-audible alarm function.

(3) fire alarm device

   In the automatic fire alarm system, the device used to emit a fire alarm signal different from ambient sound and light is called a fire alarm device. It sends out fire alarm signals to the alarm area in the form of sound, light and sound to warn people to take safe evacuation, fire fighting and disaster relief measures.

(4) fire control equipment

   In an automatic fire alarm system, after receiving a fire alarm, a device that can automatically or manually start the relevant fire fighting equipment and display its status is called a fire control equipment. Mainly include fire alarm controller, control device of automatic fire extinguishing system, control device of indoor fire hydrant system, control device of smoke and smoke exhaust system and air conditioning ventilation system, normally open fire door, fire shutter control device, elevator return control Devices, as well as some or all of the control devices such as fire emergency broadcasting, fire alarm devices, fire communication equipment, and control devices for fire emergency lighting and evacuation instructions. Fire control equipment is generally installed in the fire control center to facilitate centralized and unified control. There are also some fire control equipment installed at the site where the fire control equipment is located, but its action signal must be returned to the fire control room to implement a centralized and decentralized control method.

(5) Power supply

   The automatic fire alarm system is a fire-fighting electrical equipment. Its main power source should be a fire-fighting power source and its standby power should be a battery. In addition to powering the fire alarm controller, the system power supply also provides power to the fire control equipment related to the system.